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You may have noticed that some property values you’ve worked with in CSS have a slightly different syntax. When the value is a word followed by a pair of parentheses () containing information between them - as in background-color: rgb(0, 0, 0) - you’re using CSS functions.

In this lesson, we’ll cover the basics of what a function is and some common ways they’re used in CSS.

Lesson overview

This section contains a general overview of topics that you will learn in this lesson.

  • Recognize the basic parts of a CSS function.
  • Learn about the calc(), min(), max(), and clamp() functions and how to use each one.

What is a function and how are they used in CSS?

Similar to programming languages, functions in CSS are reusable pieces of code which perform specific tasks. Functions are passed “arguments” between parentheses, each of which is used by the function in a specific way. Some common examples are:

color: rgb(0, 42, 255);
background: linear-gradient(90deg, blue, red);

Here, the value of color is the function rgb(), which accepts arguments in the form of numbers. It processes those numbers to calculate the rgb color corresponding to the three values given. Similarly, the background property has a value of linear-gradient(90deg, blue, red). linear-gradient generates a gradient image using the parameters it’s been given. It needs at least two color arguments: colors to transition between. Additionally, you can set the angle of direction of the gradient line (like we’ve done in the example), add more color values, etc.

Unlike programming languages you’ll use in TOP, CSS does not allow us to create our own functions. Instead, the language comes bundled with a list of premade functions that will help you solve the most common styling problems.

Besides defining colors, there are several CSS functions that are useful when designing a website’s layout and sizing. These become important when thinking about responsive design.

Let’s go over a few of these functions: calc(), min(), max(), and clamp().


The most powerful use cases for calc include:

  • Mixing units
  • The ability to nest calc( calc () - calc () )

See the Pen calc() | CSS Functions by TheOdinProject (@TheOdinProjectExamples) on CodePen.

Take a look at how calc() is being used here:

:root {
--header: 3rem;
--footer: 40px;
--main: calc(100vh - calc(var(--header) + var(--footer)));
  • --header, --footer, and --main are all examples of CSS variables. You will be learning about these in the next lesson.

Setting main to equal the outcome of: 100vh - (3rem + 40px). To put it another way: main = 100vh - (header + footer). calc() is handling the math for us even though we are mixing vh, rem and px units. Combined with CSS variables, calc() can save us from the headache of repeating CSS rules.

You should be able to grasp how calc() is used in the above CodePen embed. We encourage you to play around with different units and sizes of the elements to see what results you get before moving on.

The above is just an example of how calc() can affect a layout, but keep in mind that calc() is likely not the best way to go about it. We will talk more about layouts in future lessons.


min() does an excellent job of helping us create responsive websites. Take a look at this example:

See the Pen min() | CSS Functions by TheOdinProject (@TheOdinProjectExamples) on CodePen.

#iconHolder {
  width: min(150px, 100%);
  height: min(150px, 100%);
  box-sizing: border-box;
  border: 6px solid blue;

Focus on this line width: min(150px, 100%); we can make several observations: If there are 150px available to the image, it will take up all 150px. If there are not 150px available, the image will switch to 100% of the parent’s width. In the first case min() selects 150px, since 150px is the smaller (the minimum) between 150px and 100% of the parent’s width; in the second, it chooses 100%. min() behaves as a boundary for the maximum allowed value, which in this example is 150px.

You are able to do basic math inside a min ( ) => for example: width: min(80ch, 100vw - 2rem);


Max works the same way as min, only in reverse. It will select the largest possible value from within the parentheses. You can think of max() as ensuring a minimum allowed value for a property.

Consider the following property of a given element:

width: max(100px, 4em, 50%);

From this list of given sizes, max() will select the largest one. As long as 4em or 50% result in lengths longer than 100px, max() will select (the bigger) one of them. If they are smaller than 100px (maybe as a cause of user’s font size preferences, or their browser’s window size or zoom level), then 100px will win out as the largest. You can think of 100px in this example as a guard value: width here won’t ever be set to less than 100px.

The max function is most useful when the viewing window is either exceptionally small, or the user increases the content size by using the browser’s zoom feature. You may not find a lot of use for max at first, but it is a good tool to be aware of for projects where accessibility is important.


clamp() is a great way to make elements fluid and responsive. clamp() takes 3 values:

h1 {
  font-size: clamp(320px, 80vw, 60rem);
  1. the smallest value (320px)
  2. the ideal value (80vw)
  3. the largest value (60rem)

The clamp() CSS function uses these values to set the smallest value, ideal value and largest value. In the above example, this would mean the smallest acceptable font-size would be 320px and the largest would be 60rem. The ideal font-size would be 80vw.


  1. Take a look at the complete list of CSS functions and how they are used so you have an idea of what is possible.
  2. Have a more in-depth look at the min, max and clamp CSS functions in action.

Knowledge check

The following questions are an opportunity to reflect on key topics in this lesson. If you can’t answer a question, click on it to review the material, but keep in mind you are not expected to memorize or master this knowledge.

Additional resources

This section contains helpful links to related content. It isn’t required, so consider it supplemental.

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