The first step to making responsive websites is using techniques that are naturally flexible. In a later lesson you’ll learn how to completely rearrange items on a page based on screen size, but in most cases, it’s preferable to rely on tools like flexbox and grid to make your pages work on a wide range of screens first.
Plain HTML, with no CSS is responsive. Check this out, and shrink your browser down to the size of a phone. It works perfectly! You could read that site on an apple watch.
It’s not realistic for every website you create to be as simple as plain text on a page, but it is important to keep in mind that most of the elements you’re using to build your project are responsive until you change that with CSS. If you approach your project with this mindset and do your best to maintain that natural responsiveness, you might find that there isn’t that much extra you need to do to make your sites properly responsive.
The rest of this lesson is a list of tips you can use to maintain natural responsiveness.
When mobile phones first started getting web browsers, most websites were not optimized for such small screen resolutions. To get around this, most phone browsers simply simulated a larger screen and displayed a zoomed-out version of the page. These days, however, we almost never want that behavior so we have to specify that we want our websites to be viewed at the actual non-zoomed screen resolution.
For this reason, you should add this snippet into the
<head> of your HTML file in just about every project you work on.
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
It simply sets the initial width of the webpage to the size of the actual screen you’re viewing it on, and telling it not to zoom in or out. Easy!
The number one enemy of flexibility is a fixed width on an element. If you put
width: 600px on anything, then it will never be able to shrink below that width, which ruins your chances of getting that thing to fit on most phone screens. Likewise, sticking a fixed height on an element can cause issues if the contents of that element run out of room.
Obviously the context will determine what works in a given situation, but an easy fix in many cases is replacing
max-height are also valid and may be useful depending on the context).
In the following example, notice how the fixed width causes our div to overflow the screen! Change it to max-width and watch it shrink down to fit inside the box! Click on the ‘Edit on CodePen’ button to see it in a full resizable window. When a
max-width is defined, the element will not exceed that width, but will shrink if the screen is too small to accommodate it.
This example demonstrates the problem with static heights. On a full-sized screen the text would fit inside the pink box just fine, but here on this cramped embed, it overflows! What we want here is for the div to be
300px in most cases, but to grow instead of causing an overflow when the text gets cramped. In this case changing
height: 300px to
min-height: 300px will fix the issue.
In most cases, you should avoid setting a height altogether. There are some exceptions to this rule (headers and footers perhaps) but you should prefer using margin and padding to increase space around your content. Using margin and padding will keep your elements flexible no matter what the content inside does.
Obviously there are cases when a fixed width is appropriate. It’s hard to make a universal rule, but in general the smaller your widths the more likely it’s fine to make them fixed. For example, a
32px icon on your page isn’t going to benefit from using
max-width because you probably don’t want it to shrink. Likewise a
250px sidebar probably needs to always be
250px. As with anything you just need to consider your options and pick what seems to be the most appropriate.
Here’s a statement so obvious that it sounds like a joke: flexbox was created to enable the creation of flexible layouts. Simply using flex and grid don’t necessarily guarantee perfect responsiveness, but they are really helpful tools. You’ve already learned about the relevant properties here, but things like
flex-wrap and grid’s
auto-fill and similar properties can make some impressively responsive layouts without much extra work.
This section contains helpful links to other content. It isn’t required, so consider it supplemental for if you need to dive deeper into something.
This section contains questions for you to check your understanding of this lesson. If you’re having trouble answering the questions below on your own, review the material above to find the answer.